The emergence of nationalism
Describing the conflict of nations R.R. Palmer finds that in 1793 "the wars of kings were over; the wars of peoples had begun." This nineteenth-century pattern lasted until the end of World War I. Development of nationalism is closely related to that of the modern state and the push for popular sovereignty that surfaced with the French Revolution and the American Revolution in the late 18th century and culminated with the ethnic/national revolutions of Europe. In the era of emerging nationalism, in addition to common language, ethnicity and religion as criterion for a nation, the consciousness of belonging or having belonged to a lasting political entity became the most decisive criterion of proto-nationalism.