German and Italian unification completed. The rise of pan-nationalism


German unification was the merging of the states in the North German Confederation and other German states to form the German Empire and Italian unification was the political and social movement that agglomerated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of Italy in the 19th century.
German and Italian nationalism roots in pan-movements having liberal and democratic character in 1848 shifted to pragmatic approaches of nation state formation. The process of unification began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and the end of Napoleonic rule, and ended in 1871 with the Franco-Prussian War. At that time pan-nationalist sought to extend hegemony throughout the German states and different states throughout the Italian peninsula. Series of wars led to military successes and helped to achieve unification.
The unification of Germany fundamentally altered the delicate "balance of powers" established by the Congress of Vienna with the creation of a large, wealthy, and powerful nation-state in central Europe. Moreover, it is a useful case study besides Italian unification for the broader concept of "nationalism" as a historical agent.